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Chapter 23: Of the Civil Magistrate

I. God, the supreme Lord and King of all the world, hath ordained civil magistrates to be under him over the people, for his own glory, and the publick good; and, to this end, hath armed them with the power of the sword, for the defence and encouragement of them that are good, and for the punishment of evil-doers.[a]

[a] Rom. 13:1-4. 1 Pet. 2:13,14.

II. It is lawful for Christians to accept and execute the office of a magistrate, when called thereunto:[b] in the managing whereof, as they ought especially to maintain piety, justice, and peace, according to the wholesome laws of each commonwealth;[c] so, for that end, they may lawfully, now under the New Testament, wage war upon just and necessary occasions.[d]

[b] Prov. 8:15,16. Rom. 13:1,2,4.
[c] Ps. 2:10-12. 1 Tim. 2:2. Ps. 82:3,4. 2 Sam. 23:3. 1 Pet. 2:13.
[d] Luke 3:14. Rom. 13:4. Matt. 8:9,10. Acts 10:1,2. Rev. 17:14,16.

III. The civil magistrate may not assume to himself the administration of the word and sacraments, or the power of the keys of the kingdom of heaven:[e] yet he hath authority, and it is his duty, to take order, that unity and peace be preserved in the church, that the truth of God be kept pure and entire, that all blasphemies and heresies be suppressed, all corruptions and abuses in worship and discipline prevented or reformed, and all the ordinances of God duly settled, administered, and observed.[f] For the better effecting whereof, he hath power to call synods, to be present at them, and to provide that whatsoever is transacted in them be according to the mind of God.[g]

[e] 2 Chron. 26:18 with Matt. 18:17 and Matt. 16:19. 1 Cor. 12:28,29. Eph. 4:11,12. 1 Cor. 4:1,2. Rom. 10:15. Heb. 5:4.
[f] Isa. 49:23. Ps. 122:9. Ezra 7:23,25-28. Lev. 24:16. Deut. 13:5,6,12. 1 Kings 18:4. 1 Chron. 13:1-9. 2 Kings 23:1-26. 2 Chron. 34:33. 2 Chron. 15:12,13.
[g] 2 Chron. 19:8-11. 2 Chron. 29-30. Matt. 2:4,5.

IV. It is the duty of people to pray for magistrates,[h] to honour their persons,[i] to pay them tribute and other dues,[k] to obey their lawful commands, and to be subject to their authority for conscience’ sake.[l] Infidelity, or difference in religion, doth not make void the magistrate’s just and legal authority, nor free the people from their due obedience to him:[m] from which ecclesiastical persons are not exempted;[n] much less hath the Pope any power or jurisdiction over them in their dominions, or over any of their people; and least of all to deprive them of their dominions or lives, if he shall judge them to be hereticks, or upon any other pretence whatsoever.[o]

[h] 1 Tim. 2:1,2.
[i] 1 Pet. 2:17.
[k] Rom. 13:6,7.
[l] Rom. 13:5. Tit. 3:1.
[m] 1 Pet. 2:13,14,16.
[n] Rom. 13:1. 1 Kings 2:35. Acts 25:9-11. 2 Pet. 2:1,10,11. Jude 8-11.
[o] 2 Thess. 2:4. Rev. 13:15-17.